Month: December 2018 (Page 1 of 3)

nema 17: how to make a robot arm with it

nema 17 is used in a robot arm. Tobias Kuhn watched a video on YouTube about a robotic arm using a servo motor that he wanted to make himself.
But he found it difficult to make the servo system move slowly or smoothly. Even removing the single chip from Arduino Nano and trying to use servo driver IC and potentiometer did not satisfy him.
Then he found a very affordable nema 17. After some experiments, he proposed a smoothly moving robot arm with four stepper controls from an Arduino Mega and A4988 stepper motor drivers.
Instead of writing a bunch of stepper motor codes, he installed and ran grbl’s four-axis bifurcation on Arduino, turning it into a stepper motor controller.
A minor problem is that the A4988 stepper motor driver is driven by bipolar stepper motor, but the nema 17 he has is unipolar. Fortunately, he knows a very simple method. Our Brian Benchoff wrote about how to convert a unipolar motor into a bipolar one.
When he operated on the replica, the potentiometer’s value was read by the raspberry pie and some custom Python code, which sent the appropriate G code to the robot arm controlled by Arduino/grbl.
There was a slight delay, but when he moved the replica arm, the arm would do the same thing. In order to tell the manipulator what to do, he made a replica arm with potentiometer to replace the nema 17.

nema 23: how to make analog clock with it

nema 23 is used in an analog clock. This “antique” automatic correction analog clock was designed by Instructables user gzumwalt.
Previous clocks used spring-driven mechanisms, while gzumwalt clocks used Adafruit Feather ESP32 and nema 23. Before assembling printed parts, test their suitability and file or polish them as much as possible to promote smoother movement. Make sure that all edges in contact with the printer plate are smooth.
Special attention should be paid to moving surfaces, such as gear teeth, and eliminating any “dirt” in plate making. For threaded parts, taps and dies may come in handy, mainly because the clock relies on threaded parts. Once you’ve done this, here’s a general overview of the assembly steps:
1.The reed switch enters the 3D printing bracket. This component is fragile and needs to be handled with care. For example, only bent reed switch wires use high-quality pliers to reduce the possibility of fracture.
2.Adafruit demonstrates how to use socket connectors to assemble featherboards.
3.Connect Adafruit feather plate to reed switch and nema 23 controller. You will weld, but also use screws and nuts to connect these three components.Most importantly, you need to know which wires go where during welding, because you can’t confuse polarity.
Keep in mind that the Adafruit feather board and nema 23 controller will be attached to the side that cannot accommodate the gears.

nema 23 stepper motor: what’s the system of it

nema 23 stepper motor has several coils, which must be electrified in a specific order to rotate the motor in each step. Typical nema 23 stepper motors move 1.8 degrees per step, equivalent to 200 steps per 360 degrees of rotation.
Some nema 23 stepper motors move in smaller steps to provide more accurate positioning. For example, rotate 400 steps per 360 degrees and 0.9 degrees per step.
nema 23 stepper motor is a good fit for many linear manufacturing processes because of their repeatability, high torque at low speeds, and minimal maintenance requirements. Common linear positioning applications include conveyor belts, orbit positioning and X-Y tables.
nema 23 stepper motor can also work well in rotary motion applications due to their general installation options, repeatability and reliability.
Common rotary applications include indexing tables, length-cut machines and labels. The unit receives instructions directly from the PLC and works well with a wide range of nema 23 stepper motors.
The combination of controller and driver is a good choice. Motion control applications involve multi-axis stepper motor control, because there are versions on the market that deal with up to six-axis motion control.
Whether it is the choice of individual components or combination units, PLC or PC still need to provide supervision, control and coordination. Most nema 23 stepper motor is equipped with PLC.

nema 17 stepper motor: how to 3d printing it

nema 17 stepper motor can be 3D printed. Think about it. Most of us don’t fully understand how electronic products work when we use them in our daily lives. In fact, most of us may have no idea how computers calculate, how television displays moving images, or how motors rotate.
In fact, for most of us, it doesn’t matter how these electronic devices function, but in fact they are very attractive. You may remember a recent story about a man named Anthony Galofaro who printed his nema 17 stepper motor in 3D.
Of course, it’s not the first 3D printing motor we’ve ever seen. It’s unique in itself, and Garofalo has provided design documents to anyone to print out. In fact, he created a complete Instructables tutorial with the prototype G username to teach others how to do this.
Now Galofalo has taken another step forward, turning his already charming nema 17 stepper motor into something more incredible – an educational tool.
In order to help people better understand the working principle of stepping motor, he added led. All of this can be seen through led lights, thanks to Garofalo’s clever creativity.
When nema 17 stepper motor is turned on, the light-emitting diode lights up, showing exactly which coil is activated. nema 17 stepper motor takes a full 15 degree step and can activate two pairs of coils once in half step.

dc brushless motor: works with a 3d printing stator

dc brushless motor can obtain a certain success value with the 3D printing stator. Beitridge’s law holds that any title ending with a question mark can be answered with “no”. “We’re not sure,” he said.However, Betteridge’s statement is entirely correct, because 3D printing stator can work successfully for the dc brushless motor.
Part of improving technology is copying other people’s achievements, so that’s Scott trying to do something here. It also builds on his recent experiments with rewinding commercial dc brushless motor to convert it into generators.
His first step was to rebuild his dc brushless motor stator as a printable part. It can easily reconstruct the shape of the stator, and even print it using the original spaghetti iron injected into the polylactic acid wire.
But this is far from the magnetic properties of a suitable stator. There are also some hot issues that can be alleviated by fans. It’s not an amazing success, but it’s still an interesting experiment.
By observing the layered structure of the printing stator, we can get the idea that maybe the double extruder printer can alternate between ordinary PLA and magnetic materials to copy the layered structure of the standard stator. This may help to limit eddy currents and better manage heating.
dc brushless motor with printed stators can work, but the torque is so small that they can’t rotate even under the smallest load.

bldc motor: the advantage of it

bldc motor can overcome the shortcomings of these well-known stepper motors. They are very efficient through optimized motor control, and because of stepless motion, their control is smoother and quieter, thus consuming less electricity and generating less heat.
On the other hand, when using bldc motor, the overall system cost will be higher. This is partly due to the need to control bldc motor in a single-chip computer to run more complex algorithms.
In addition, from stepper motor to bldc motor, besides developing control software, it is necessary to redesign the mechanical subsystem. These requirements can significantly increase project costs and time to market.
Finally, when the design is completed, the team must spend time collecting long-term reliability data. A better solution is that if the stepper motor drive can rotate as efficiently as a bldc motor, and the noise is low, there is no need for a large number of redesigned or expensive control elements.
In this way, designers can launch the next generation of devices that are quieter, more environmentally friendly, without cooling fans, and more reliable.
By improving the stepper motor controller in two key areas – adjusting the motor drive current and stepper pulse generation method – the existing mechanism can provide the required bldc-like performance.
To solve this problem, ON Semiconductor developed LC898240 current controller, which provides a method to automatically optimize the driver’s constant current settings when the motor load changes. This allows stepper motors to drive efficiently, similar to bldc motor, and minimizes audible noise and wasted energy.

stepper motor driver: how does it work in PCBs

stepper motor driver IC is used in PCBs, this method requires special cooling technology to deal with power consumption.
Heat transfer on two-layer PCBs may be more difficult due to the presence of trace amounts and components. It is necessary to provide as many solid copper as possible with good thermal connections to stepper motor driver ICs.
Casting copper in two outer layers and stitching them together with many small holes helps to disperse heat to areas cut by traces and components.
Because the current of the stepper motor driver IC of the in-out motor is very large (in some cases more than 10a), the width of the PCB line in-out device should be carefully considered.
The wider the mark, the smaller the resistance. The size of the tracking must be adjusted so that the tracking resistance does not dissipate too much power, leading to tracking warming.
Too small a trace can actually burn like a fuse! It is important to understand that the tracking width recommendation in IPC-2221 applies to a long PCB tracking with constant width.
Component configuration guidelines for electric drive integrated circuits are similar to other types of power integrated circuits.
Bypass capacitors should be placed as close as possible to the device power pins, and large capacity capacitors should be placed nearby. Many stepper motor driver ICs use bootstrap and/or charge pump capacitors.

nema 34 stepper motor: applied in new XY Open Aperture Stage

nema 34 stepper motor is used in AU200-100 x 100 XY Open Aperture Stage. Van Nuys, CA-OES (Optimal-Engineering Systems, Inc.) added a new high-precision open stage on the basis of expanding the XY precision line.
The AU200-100×100 stage is a low-profile stage with only 80mm high and compact footprints nema 34 stepper motor.
The linear travel of X-axis and Y-axis is 100 mm X 100 mm. The resolution of each axis is 20 micron (non-micro-step) or 1 micron (driving 20 micron per step motor in use), the repeatability is 2 micron, and the positioning accuracy is 3 micron.
These stages have pre-loaded V-grooves and cross-roller bearings, and 4 mm grounding screw with a clearance of only 2 microns per ring, all of which help to improve the accuracy and stiffness of AU200-100×100.
It is suitable for laser drilling, mechanical processing, medical, industrial, semiconductor processing, testing, scanning, calibration, assembly and optical applications. This compact, low profile black alumina XY class is easy to integrate into new or existing systems.
Standard two-phase (1.8o) nema 34 stepper motor has knobs for each axis in the manual adjustment phase, but the knobs can be replaced by incremental encoders for position verification.
As an option, servo motors and compatible motion controllers can also be ordered from OES or AU200-100×100 stages as a complete Plug and Play motion control system.
Introduction: OES Optimal Engineering System Co., Ltd. (OES) is a company that produces motion control products. The products include nema 34 stepper motor controller and driver.

nema 17: how to make the accurate measurements

nema 17 and nozzle, I started by specifying exactly what measurements I needed to make: what was the relationship between them. The nozzle in this position gave me a rough outline of the cold end, so it didn’t hit anything.
The other features of the cold end and their location are unnecessary. You don’t need to model the entire component — you just need to model the parts that affect the component being built. It looks like we have a nema 17 bracket at the back.
Since all stepper motors are built according to the standard, we can apply Rule 1 immediately. Fast search shows that nema 17 mode has 3 mm square hole spacing at 31mm and 27 mm holes in the middle.
Next is the application of Rule 2. It looks like the axis is right in the middle of the box, which means that nema 17 mode should be right in the middle of the box. Looking at it again, however, it is clear that the center is an illusion caused by the offset screw in the lower right corner. This is an important dimension, so I want to measure it to make sure it is in the middle.
First of all, I chose the angle that was the easiest to measure. According to Rule 1, I can assume that without rotation, the step mode and everything are completely square. Even though there are some unknown advantages of rotating stepping holes, CAD software hates this kind of thing very much.
Finally, we must get the offset from nema 17 axis to the center of the nozzle assembly.

nema 23: how to drive mechanisms in cost-sensitive applications

nema 23 is applied in many machines, the one designed for economic reasons can provide better user experience if they are quieter, smoother and more energy-efficient.
Millions of small electronic devices with built-in motor drive mechanism are used everyday around the world, relying on stepper motors to achieve low-cost motion, which can be easily controlled without complex microprocessor-based driver.
These include multifunctional office printers/scanners, cash machines, point-of-sale terminals, sewing machines and many industrial applications.
nema 23 is an attractive solution for driving mechanisms in cost-sensitive applications such as office machines, trading equipment and some types of industrial machinery.
In order to meet the demand of the market for better performance and availability, two key aspects of motor control strategy are strengthened under the economic price. Energy efficiency is improved, heat generation is reduced, and operation is quieter and smoother.
The audible noise emitted by nema 23 can distract attention, especially in industrial scenarios where a large number of motors may operate simultaneously in the same area.
In addition, even at low speeds, drivers consume electricity, which is often inconsistent with ecological design goals and may endanger the battery life of handheld applications.
Therefore, in many cases, nema 23 is most suitable for all kinds of requirements that must be met, but it is not a perfect or ideal solution.

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