Nema 23 consists of a rotor with permanent magnets and a fixed stator with a winding. When the current flows through the stator winding, it generates a flux distribution that interacts with the rotor’s magnetic field distribution to exert a steering force.
Nema 23 has high magnetic pole counts, usually 50 or more. The stepper motor driver charges each pole in order, so that the rotor rotates in a series of increments or steps. Because the poles are very high, the motion seems to be continuous.
Nema 23 has many advantages. Because they generate incremental motion, they usually run open-loop, eliminating the cost and complexity of encoders or parsers. The high pole count allows them to produce very high torque at zero speed. They are compact and economical.
In adverse aspects, nema 23 has speed limits. They usually run best at 1200 rpm or below. Although they produce high torque at zero speed, the torque decreases with the increase of speed. For example, a motor that produces 100 ounces of inches at zero speed may produce only 50 ounces of inches at 500 rpm and only 10 ounces at 1000 rpm. If nema 23 is used to drive ball screw actuators or similar, it may not provide enough speed to meet the needs of the application.